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In stitchesΒ If you are “in stitches”, it means you are laughing so hard that your sides hurt.Β 


❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’  a while/awhile

The two-word expression, *a while*, is a noun phrase — “a” is an article and “while” is a noun. It means for an “uncertain duration of time, a period of time”. This period of time may be short or long. *While* is pronounced as /waΙͺl/ but not /hwail/.
The one-word expression, *awhile* is an adverb and it means “for a short time or period”. It is pronounced as /Ι›waΙͺl/.
Example 

1. It’s been *a while* we met.βœ… 

2. I will wait for you *awhile*.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  i.e. and e.g.

These are abbreviations that are useful when writing. The full renditions are *id est* and *exempli gratia*. They are Latin words. 
*Id est* (i.e.) means _’that is’_, or _’in other words’_. It means you are throwing more light on what has been said earlier. It doesn’t mean you are giving examples. 
When you want to give examples (informally), use *e.g.* It means _’for example’_. It doesn’t also mean you are throwing more light on what has been said earlier. 
In formal writing, it is not advisable to use the abbreviations. Write them in full, that is, write “for example” and “that is” instead of “e.g.” and “i.e.” respectively. Whenever you use the abbreviations, note that there is a full stop (.) after each letter. 
Example 

1. We need a democratic government, *that is*, a government under constitutional rule. βœ… [That is = i.e.]

2. Silvia requested some ingredients, *for example*, onion, tomatoes, carrots, etc. [For example = e.g.]
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Rules for writing numbers (continued) 
*Rule One: Numbers that are spelt out*

1. Numbers under 10.

2. Numbers beginning a sentence.

3. Fractions. Fractions are usually hyphenated. Example: About *one-third* of the students didn’t come for the class. 

*Exception*

When it is a mixed fraction, we use the numerals unless it begins the sentence. 

Example: We need only *1Β½* cup of rice. 
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Portmanteau /pɔːtˈmΓ¦n.tΙ™ΚŠ/

“A large travelling case usually made of leather, and opening into two equal sections; a suitcase,” etc. 
In linguistics, a *portmanteau* word is formed from blending or joining two words. For example, *emoticons* was formed from “emotions” and “icons”.
*Portmanteau* is of a French origin. It is not pronounced as /potomanto/. It is pronounced as /pΙ”Ι”t men tou/.
Example 

1. He was never seen without his *portmanteau*.βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Aircraft

The plural for *aircraft* is *aircraft*.
Example 

1. The army has many *aircraft*.
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  New innovations

This expression is tautological. An *innovation* is “a new method, idea, product, etc.”, so it is not necessary to modify it with “new”. 
Example 

1. Young ones are advised to come up with *new innovations*.❌

Young ones are advised to come up with *innovations*.βœ…
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  In stitches 

If you are *in stitches*, it means you are laughing so hard that your sides hurt. 

Example 

1. When the comedian mounted the stage, he had all of us *in stitches*.βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Noisome 

What came to mind when you saw this word? Noise? πŸ˜‚πŸ˜œDon’t worry, we are in the same soup. It doesn’t mean noisy; it means *smelly*. Something which smells badly is *noisome*. It is an adjective. 
Example 

1. We couldn’t stand the *noisome* smell emanating from the gutter.βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  To be a good listener,
1. Listen to understand, not only to respond.

2. Don’t have a divided attention.

3. Involve other senses when listening. (Eye contact is important)

4. Don’t be interrupting too often. People noted for saying *sorry to cut you short* can be very annoying.

5. Know that listening is different from hearing. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Symbol

“A symbol is literary device that contains several layers of meaning, often concealed at first sight. Symbolism is using an object or action that means something more than its literal meaning”.
Example

1. “The phrase ‘a new dawn’ does not talk only about the actual beginning of a new day but also signifies a new start, a fresh chance to begin and the end of a previous tiring time.”
❇ *Countries and their people*πŸ‡¬πŸ‡­πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡ΈπŸ‡³πŸ‡Ώ

A person from Iceland is an *Icelandic*.
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of oxen is called a *yoke*.

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A person from France is a “French”.


❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’  All together/Altogether

Use *all together* to mean “all in one place”, or “in a group”.
 Use *altogether* to mean “completely” or “in all”, or “on the whole”.
When “all together” is used, other words can come between “all” and “together ” but same cannot be done when “altogether” is used.
Example 

1. The apprentice packed *all* the tools *together*.βœ…

2. We have fun when we are *all together*.βœ…

3. *Altogether*, we have made progress in today’s discussion.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  He *hunged* himself 

Use *hanged* when you mean “put to death by hanging”. Use *hung* in all other instances. 
*Hanged* is the past tense of “hang” in the sense of executing someone by using a rope around the neck. *Hung* is the past tense of “hang” but it is used for things. For example, “He hung the picture on the wall”. “Hanged” is used for persons whereas “hung” is used for things. 
Example 

1. The condemned prisoner is to be *hanged* this afternoon.βœ…

2. I have *hung* a Ghana flag on my wall.βœ…
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Rules for writing numbers 
*Rule number Two: Numbers that require numerals*

1. Numbers 10 and above 

Example: We bought *13* laptops yesterday.

2. Percentages

Example: Clinton scored 78% in the English exam. *Note*: Spell out the percentage if it begins the sentence. 
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Stethoscope /ˈstΙ›ΞΈΙ™sˌkoʊp/

“It is a medical instrument used for listening to sounds produced within the body…”
The first syllable is not pronounced as /sΙ›/ but /stΙ›/.
Example

1. The NGO donated *stethoscopes* to the hospital. βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Lefty/Righty

A lefty or a left-handed person is one who uses his/her left hand in preference to, or more skillfully than, one’s right. It is also spelt as “leftie”. The opposite form is *rightie* or *righty* or *right-handed*.
In UK, a *leftie* is one with left-wing political views. To be on the safe side, you can use “left-handed” which is common between the two varieties.
Example 

1. Stephen is *left-handed*.βœ…

2. We didn’t know he was a *righty* until he started playing.βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  Two twins

Example 

1. Harriet is the younger of the *two twins*. ❌
The above example is a tautological statement. We know that “twins” are “two” so it is unnecessary to precede it with “two”. The sentence should read, 
1. Harriet is the younger of the *twins*.βœ…
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Expectant mother 

A pregnant woman 
Example 

1. God bless all *expectant mothers*. πŸ™πŸ½
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Paedophile/Pedophile (noun) 

A person who is sexually attracted to children. 
The British spell it as “paedophile/pii dΙ™ faΙͺl/ and the Americans spell it as “pedophile /pΙ› doʊ faΙͺl/.
Example 

1. We shouldn’t tolerate *paedophiles* in our society.βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  To overcome stage fright, you need to know that, 
1. Everyone, at one point in time, has experienced this. 

2. The need to communicate or perform the action is more important. 

3. You won’t overcome it if you don’t ever make the attempt to break the ice. 

4. You need to prepare well on presentations before getting on stage. 

5. It is necessary to free your mind; don’t be intimidated; be confident! 

6. Practice makes perfect. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Exposition 

An opening section in fiction, including novel, play, and movie, by which background information about the characters, events, or setting is conveyed. 
The exposition of characters helps the audience or readers to know the various characters and their details such as their families, occupations, relationships, etc. 
❇ *Countries and their people*πŸ‡¬πŸ‡­πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡ΈπŸ‡³πŸ‡Ώ

A person from France is a *French*.
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of cockroaches is called an *intrusion*.

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Per se Β is an adverb, and it means “by or in itself or themselves”. It is of Latin origin. It is not spelt as “per say”.


❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’  Careless/Care less 

*Careless* (written as one word) is an adjective. We use it to modify a noun. It could mean “free from care, unworried, not concerned, without anxiety”. It also means “not giving sufficient attention or thought to avoiding harm or errors”, negligent, etc.
*Care less* (written as two words) is used as verb. If someone *cares less*, the person doesn’t show concern; he/she doesn’t give close attention to (something), etc. It contrasts with *care more*. 
Example

1. He is a *care less* driver. ❌

He is a *careless* driver.βœ…

2. I *careless* about all that you are saying. ❌

I *care less* about all that you are saying.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  More worthy

The adjective *worthy* comes with its comparative and superlative forms. We have *worthy, worthier, and worthiest.*
Example 

1. To have life is *more worthy* than anything.❌

To have life is *worthier* than anything.βœ…
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Rules for writing numbers
When we are writing, we sometimes face the difficulty in deciding whether to spell out a number or to just write the figure. We shall walk through some of the rules. It should be noted that there are some exceptions to some of these rules, bearing in mind that there are different styles of writing such as the APA, MLA, etc. However, these rules are common in many of the styles. 
*Rule One: Numbers that are spelt out*

1. Numbers under 10. 

Example: Derrick has *two* sisters. 

2. Numbers beginning a sentence. 

Example: *Eighty* people have registered for the trip. 
*To be continued…*
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Covenant

It is an agreement to do or not to do a particular thing. 
*Covenant* is not pronounced as /kΙ”n ve nant/. There is no “n” in the first syllable. It is pronounced as /ka ve nent/.
Example 

1. We have a *covenant* with God. 
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Per se

*Per se* is an adverb, and it means “by or in itself or themselves”. It is of Latin origin. It is not spelt as *per say. 
Example

1. Naa Adjeley wasn’t referring to the figures *per say*.❌

Naa Adjeley wasn’t referring to the *per se*.βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  Dash me some

This expression has had to be repeated for the purpose of emphasis. 
*Dash* doesn’t mean *give* in Standard English (SE). It may be accepted in Pidgin English but not in SE. *Dash* in SE means to run quickly or for a short distance; to leave or depart; to destroy by striking (against), etc. 
Example 

1. I told him to *dash* me some money. ❌

I told him to *give* me some money. βœ…

2. I have to *dash* to the clinic now. βœ…
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Practice makes perfect

“Regular exercise of an activity or skill is the way to become [skilled] in it”. 
Over the years, we have animated this idiom with “one” or “man” to read *practice makes one perfect* or *practice makes a man perfect*. It is widely used, but be informed that the standard idiom is *practice makes perfect*.
Example 

1. Up and coming singers should keep working hard because *practice makes perfect*.βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Ingratiate 

If you ingratiate yourself with somebody, you do things in order to make that person like you, especially someone who will be useful to you”. In other words, it means “to bring oneself into favour with someone by flattering or trying to please him or her”.
Example 

1. Bismark’s initial plan was to *ingratiate* himself with Sarah.βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  When meeting a person for the first time
1. Know that appearance counts (first impressions are important)

2. Know that the person may be as shy as you are, so don’t make any fuss about shyness. 

3. Be gentle; be polite and simple when speaking. 

4. Study the person to know his/her interest. It informs you on how to choose your subjects. 

5. Don’t be distracted by your phone, or any other thing. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Epilogue

It is a short speech, spoken directly at the audience at the end of the play. Whereas a *prologue* comes before the play starts, an *epilogue* comes after the play has ended. 
❇ *Countries and their people*πŸ‡¬πŸ‡­πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡ΈπŸ‡³πŸ‡Ώ

A person from Cyprus is a *Cypriot*.
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of guinea fowl is called a *confusion*.

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Fate is “the course of someone’s life, or the outcome of a situation for someone


❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’  Faith/Fate

*Faith* is “a strong belief in the doctrines of a religion, based on spiritual conviction rather than proof; a strongly held belief; a complete trust or confidence in someone or something; a particular religion, etc. It is pronounced as /feΙͺth/.
*Fate* is “the course of someone’s life, or the outcome of a situation for someone or something, seen as outside their control”; destiny, etc. It is pronounced as /feΙͺt/.
Example 

1. *Fate* brought us together.βœ…

2. I have *faith* in God. βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  Don’t use _et cetera (etc)_ for persons. 
*Et cetera (etc)* is used after a list to show that there are other things that you could have mentioned.
However, if it is a list of persons, do not use *etc*. You can use _…and others, and so on, and so forth, and several others_, etc. 
Example 

1. Our team members are Claudia, James, Precious, Jennifer, Nedra, Thomas, etc. ❌

Our team members are Claudia, James, Precious, Jennifer, Nedra, Thomas, and several others.βœ…
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Plurality

*Feedback* is an uncountable noun. As such, it has no plural form. You can have “some feedback” or “a lot of feedback”, but you can’t have *”two feedbacks”.
The noun *feedback* means “a critical assessment of a process or activity or of their results”.
Example 

1. We need your *feedbacks* on Thursday.❌

We need your feedback on Thursday. βœ…

2. The team has a lot of *feedback* to respond to. βœ…
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Knockout /ˈnΙ’kaʊt/

*Knockout*, as a noun, is “an act of knocking someone out, especially in boxing”. Also, it is “a tournament in which the loser in each round is eliminated”.
It is pronounced as /nΙ” kawt/.
Example 

1. PSG met their Waterloo at the *knockout* stage.βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Puncture

“A small hole in a tyre resulting in an escape of air”; a flat tyre. Also, it is “a small hole in something such as the skin, caused by a sharp object”.
It is pronounced as /pankya/, not /pΙ”nkyeaa/.
Example

1. We realised later that the tyre had a *puncture*.βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  Don’t spoil my name

The sense of this expression is understandable but *spoil* is used inconveniently. It makes the expression sound too local and funny. We can say, *Don’t soil my name* or *Don’t drag my name through the mud*. 
Example

1. I don’t understand why the journalist is bent on *spoiling my name*. 😜

I don’t understand why the journalist is bent on *soiling my name*. βœ…
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Christmas graduate

(US, idiomatic, humorous) 

A *Christmas graduate* refers to “a freshman who drops out of college at the end of the first semester”.
Example 

1. Jeffrey was the only *Christmas graduate* from our class. βœ…
❇ ** Word Of The Day πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Flick through 

As a noun, a *flick through* is “a quick look through (a book, magazine, etc.)”
As a phrasal verb, flick through means to look quickly through a book, a magazine, etc. The other verb forms are “flicks”, “flicking”, and “flicked”.
Example 

1. Jed was *flicking through* my pictures when I got to the room.βœ…

2. We didn’t do a thorough assessment of the work, it was just a *flick through*. βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  When preparing for a presentation…(continued) 
*On the day of the presentation*
1. Be at the venue about 30 minutes before time. It eases you off pressure. 

2. If you have access to the room for the presentation, you can move around and get acclimatised to the place. 

3. Get your bulleted points ready on paper, and off-the-cuff. The paper can get missing, but the presentation must go on. 

4. Dress well; look sharp and poised for action; it boosts your confidence. 
*To be continued…*
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Connotation

Apart from the basic, primary, literal or dictionary meaning of a word, a word can assume a second meaning. As we said in the previous lesson, our minds go to _roses, hibiscus, etc.,_ when we mention flower because they are examples of the denotative meaning of the word. However, a *flower* can be used to refer to a beautiful lady. That is a connotative meaning. 
❇ *Countries and their people*πŸ‡¬πŸ‡­πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡ΈπŸ‡³πŸ‡Ώ

A person from Belgium is a *Belgian*.
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of crocodiles is called a *float*.

Collective noun, confusing words, Fashion tips, grammar check, idiom of the day, Impacting, Influence, Inspiration, know your language, Language check, misused words, Motivation, New year, spell check, Uncategorized, word of the day

Β Bring to the table…ο»Ώ Β Β It means “to contribute something to a group effort.”

YOUR MORNING FACT

The space between the thumb and forefinger is called _Purlicue._

❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­
πŸ’  Alone/Lonely

*Alone* means “by oneself, solitary, solo, without a companion; apart from, or exclusive of, others”, etc. 
*Lonely* means “unhappy because of feeling isolated from contact with other people, unhappy due to being alone, lonesome, unaccompanied”, etc. 
Sometimes, these words are used interchangeably. It is harmless anyway, but it’s about time we got their distinction clear. A person can be alone and be happy, and not feel lonely. Being alone is predominantly just a physical separation from others. It doesn’t necessarily make you feel lonely. You could be alone with your phone and still feel happier than someone in the midst of friends. Someone can be in the midst of people but feel lonely. When one is among people, physically the person is not alone, but he/she can feel lonely if he/she feels isolated or ignored by them. 
Example 

1. I like being alone; it makes me happy.βœ…

2. I won’t go for the party; I will feel lonely.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  Voice out

*Voice* as a verb means “to give utterance or expression to, to publish, to announce, to utter”, etc. 
You can *voice* your opinions, sentiments, concerns, etc., without adding the preposition *out*. It is akin to *raise up your hand*. One can say *raise your hand*; it is appropriate. 
Example 

1. The leader *voiced* the concerns of the people to the judge.βœ…
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Capitalisation (continued)
*Rule 6*: Capitalise a title or an abbreviation of a title used before a person’s name. 
Example 

*M*rs. Boatemaa, *D*r. Marfo, *P*resident Arthur, *R*ev. Boachie, etc. 
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Honour /ΛˆΙ’nΙ™/

It means “recognition of importance or value; respect; a state of being morally upright, noble, virtuous. It can also be a privilege, a prize or an award, etc. 
*Honour* is not pronounced as /hΙ” na/. It is pronounced as /a na/. The “h” is not sounded. 
1. My wife showed me great honour yesterday.βœ…

2. It’s an honour to be here today. βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Kwashiorkor

It is “a form of malnutrition, found in children, caused by dietary insufficiency of protein in combination with a high carbohydrate diet.”
The word is pronounced as /kwa shiΙ”Ι” kΙ”/. Note the correct spelling. Its origin is Ga, from Ghana. It doesn’t have to be put in inverted commas when used; it is internationally recognised.
Example 

1. Many children on the street die of *kwashiorkor*. βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  You talk plenty

Yes, the person talks too much; he/she is talkative or loquacious. *You talk plenty* sounds too local. The sense of the expression is correct but the form is questionable. It can be made better with *too much*.
Example 

1. Priscilla can’t stand people who talk *plenty*.❌

Priscilla can’t stand people who talk *too much*.βœ…
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Bring to the table

It means “to contribute something to a group effort.”
Example 

1. In nation building, every citizen must *bring* something *to the table*. βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Quorum

A *quorom* refers to the minimum number of members required for a group to officially start a meeting or to cast votes. 
*Quorum* is pronounced as /kwΙ”Ι” rΙ›m/. The word is of Latin origin. 
Example 

1. We cannot commence the meeting officially until we have a *quorum*.βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  Ways to break bad news
1. Assess the situation whether it is conducive. You don’t break bad news to someone who is eating or about to eat. 

2. If possible, don’t break it when the person is alone, especially when the person’s condition is not good. 

3. Don’t be too direct or straightforward. 

4. If possible, use idioms, euphemisms, proverbs, any way that is mild and “a little pleasant”.

5. Be ready to console.

6. Be considerate. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Non-fiction 

Unlike fiction which describes imaginary events and people, *non-fiction* refers to written works intended to give facts, or true accounts of real things and events. A non-fiction is a true story. 
Give examples of non-fiction.
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of baboons (a specie of monkey) is called a *troop*.

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Variety is the spice of lifeΒ Frequent changes in one’s life makes life interesting.Β 

Monday is the perfect day to correct last week’s mistakes. If you are Persistent, you will get it. If you are consistent you will keep it. 

Either you run the day or the day runs you… step out of your comfort zone and be amazing. 

You are special; dare to be different!

❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­
πŸ’  Test/Text

A *Test* is a challenge, a trial or an examination. It is pronounced as /tΙ›st/. A *Text* is a brief written message, a verse or passage of scripture, a book, etc. It is pronounced as /tΙ›kst/.
Example 

1. Congratulations to everyone who took part in last Friday’s *text*.❌

Congratulations to everyone who took part in last Friday’s *test*.βœ…

2. Send me a *text* when you get there.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  To be continue

When you have to postpone an activity and continue later, you can say/write *To be continued*, but not *to be continue*.
Example 

1. I will end the lecture here; it is to be continued next week.βœ…
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Capitalisation (Continued)
*Rule Four*: Capitalise the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence. A direct quotation gives the speaker’s exact words. 
Example 

1. Renee said that, “We will go for a party today because it is my birthday.”βœ…
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Either

(IPA): /ˈaΙͺΓ°.Ι™(ΙΉ)/

(IPA): /ˈiːð.Ι™(ΙΉ)/
*Either* can either be pronounced as /ii da/ or /ai da/. The same can be said of *neither*, that is, it is pronounced as /nii da/ or /nai da/.
*Either* means “one or the other of two”, or “each of two”. *Neither* means “not one of two” or “not either”.
Example 

1. *Either* Ruth or Pearl will come for the meeting.βœ…

2. *Neither* of the two will come for the meeting.βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Longevity 

There is always the temptation to spell the word as *longitivity* or *longivity*. It is correctly spelt as *longevity*.
Longevity means the quality of being long-lasting; long life, long existence or service.
Example 

1. Her *longevity* in the office won her many awards.βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  Is medicine in your lenses/glasses?
Yes, it is a valid question but it sounds too ordinary. If you have a troublesome sibling, he/she will ask you to show them where the medicine is, or better still pour it out for them to see.πŸ˜ƒ
Simply ask, is your glasses medicated? Your intent of asking is still intact, unchanged, wanting to know whether the glasses isn’t just for fashion. 
Example 

1. How can I know that there is medicine in your glasses?😜

How can I know that your glasses is medicated?πŸ‘πŸ½
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Variety is the spice of life 

Frequent changes in one’s life makes life interesting. 
Example 

1. You’ve got to try something new today; variety is the spice of life.βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Voice-over 

A *Voice-over* “is a production technique where a voice β€” that is not part of the narrative β€” is used in a radio, television production, filmmaking, theatre, or other presentations”. It is also known as off-camera or off-stage commentary.
On our TV screens lately, we have many telenovelas which have “white people” speak local dialects such as Twi, Akuapem, etc. Those voices are voice-overs because we know the characters cannot speak the Twi and Akuapem dialects. The voices weren’t part of the original movie, but they were recorded and played over the visuals. 
Example 

1. The voice-over technique for “Veera” was done excellently.βœ…
❇*Conversational tip*βœ…

πŸ’  How to argue without offending your opponent 

1. Listen to his views

2. Try to polish/frame their points/arguments in a better way

3. Don’t insult! 

4. Don’t shout! 

5. Punch holes logically and intellectually 

6. No personal attack; your target is the argument not the arguer

7. Be considerate; too much mockery, name calling and sarcasm are triggers to anger. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Character 

A person in a literary work; any person in a play is considered as a character.
Example 

1. Sizwe Bansi is a character in the _Sizwe Bansi is Dead_ story.βœ…
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of locusts is called a *plague*.

Your language is your bargaining power, so make it skilled
πŸ‘ŠπŸ½

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It behoves on us

In life, some may walk, others may run. Remember Lord gave the tortoise & the horse the same days to reach Noah’s ark. Your journey might be rough & tough but you will definitely get to your destination. 

πŸšΆπŸ½β€β™€Good MorningπŸšΆπŸ½β€β™€ let’s learn something today 

❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’  True/through

If something is true, it is factually correct; legitimate, accurate, genuine, etc. The opposite is “false”, “untrue”, etc. *True* is pronounced as /truu/ but not /chruu/. It functions as an adjective. The noun form is *truth*.
As a preposition, *through* means “from one side of an opening to the other”. As an adjective, it means finished, complete, no longer interested, etc. It is pronounced as /thruu/; it is not /truu/. The /th/ sound must be distinct. 
Example 

1. What Mercy said was *through*.❌

What Mercy said was *true*.βœ…

2. Fauzia is *true* with school.❌

Fauzia is *through* with school.βœ…

3. I walked *through* the tunnel yesterday.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  It behoves on us

The acceptable expression according to the Cambridge dictionary is *it behoves somebody to do something*. It does not take the preposition *on*.
The expression means, “It is a duty or responsibility for someone to do something.”
Example 

1. It *behoves our teachers* to render selfless and dedicated service to our nation. βœ…

2. It *behoves us* to reward our teachers for their services.
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Capitalisation 
*Rule Seven*: Do not capitalise an indirect quotation. An indirect quotation does not repeat the exact words of a speaker. It should not be enclosed in quotation marks. An indirect quotation is often introduced with the word “that”.
Example 

1. The lecturer said that he will be late.βœ…
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Tough /tʌf/

*Tough* means hard, strong and resilient, harsh, severe, rough, difficult, demanding, etc. 
It is pronounced as /taf/ but not /tΙ”f/.
Example 

1. The questions were very *tough*.βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Knot

To tie the knot with someone means to marry the person. This *knot* is not the same as *nut* or *not*.
A knot can also refer to a difficult situation or a maze-like pattern. 
Example 

1. He tied the *knot* with his old-time girlfriend.βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  I am going to private

Over the years, this expression has been used in place of “I am going to toilet”. Interestingly, *I am going to private* is not known or used by the English native speaker. It is not wrong per se; it is Ghanaian English. The native speaker may say, “I am using the washroom/restroom/loo/lavatory, etc”. 
πŸ›‘It must be emphasised that this section of the lesson is not meant to undermine our Ghanaian English; it is designed to arm us with the Standard English while we polish our Ghanaian English. 
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Keep a civil tongue 

It means be polite. 
Example 

1. We have to *keep a civil tongue* when we are angry. 
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Dock

It is the part of the courtroom where the accused person or defendant sits or stands. 
Example 

1. The young man in the *dock* looks innocent.βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  Ways to caution someone who likes indulging in other people’s matters. 
1. Don’t poke your nose in my business

2. Don’t be snoopy

3. Don’t be inquisitive 

4. Don’t stick your nose into people’s business. 

5. Don’t be nosy (nosey) 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Genre(s)

This refers to classes or types of Literature. Since the writings of Plato and Aristotle, literary works have been grouped into many genres such as lyric, epic, drama, satire, etc. Presently, we have *Poetry*, *Prose* and *Drama* as the widely know genres of Literature. 
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of mice is called a *mischief*. *Mice* is the plural form of *mouse*.
❇️ Picture of the day

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1. It is *alleged* that he stole the money.

❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­
πŸ’ Vertical line/Horizontal line

A *vertical line* is drawn from top to down, from North Pole to South pole, from your head to your toes. A *horizontal line* is drawn from a left side to a right side or vice versa, from West to East, from one side of your waist to the other side.
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  But yet still 

You should be tired after saying all this. Each one of them can be used to express contrast, or describe an opposite situation. Using all three is unnecessary. 
Example 

1. We have cautioned him several times, but yet still he does the same thing.❌

We have cautioned him several times, yet he does the same thing.βœ…
You can use “but” to replace “yet”, and the sentence will still make sense. 
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Use of “no” and “none

*No* means ‘not any’. Use *no* with a noun. In other words, a noun should follow *no* directly. For example, “no books”, “no teachers”, etc. *None* also means ‘not any’ or ‘not even one’. *None* is used with an ‘of phrase’. For example, “none of my teachers”. “Of my teacher” is the ‘of phrase’. *None* can also stand alone. For example, “I met none here”. 
Example 

1. There were *no* _students_ in the classroom.βœ…

2. *No* of the parents could come for the meeting.❌

*None* _of the parents_ could come for the meeting.βœ…
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Cousin /ˈkʌzΙ™n/

The son or daughter of a person’s uncle or aunt is a *cousin*. It is pronounced as /ka zen/ to rhyme “dozen”. It is not pronounced as /kΙ›Ι› zen/.
Example 

1. Ben is my *cousin*. 
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Haphazard 

If something is done in a *haphazard* manner, it is done in a disorderly way, in a way which is unsystematic, not consistent, at random, etc. 
It is pronounced as /hap haa zad/. It is not pronounced as /ha faa zad/.
The spelling looks a little clumsy but you need to master if you want to use the word. *Haphazard* is an adjective; the adverb form is *haphazardly*.
Example

1. The room allocation to the boarders was done in a *haphazard* way.βœ…
❇*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’ Fortunately unfortunately

Okay, let’s go, “Softly hardly”, “adequately inadequately”, can we go on?πŸ˜‚In spoken Ghanaian English, we allow this; we mean that something bad might have happened but it had some positive side. The idiom close to this is *a blessing in disguise*. But can we use *fortunately unfortunately* in formal writing? Can we use two opposite words in succession this way? Be the judge! 
The sense of its usage is clear, but it will be clearer and appropriate if the aspect which is *fortunate* is used in one sentence, and the *unfortunate* aspect is also used in another sentence. 
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Economical with the truth

Not telling the whole truth; being untruthful or lying. 
Example 

1. Everyone could tell that the culprit was being economical with the truth.βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Alleged

If a case is not proved to be true or otherwise in a court, or any settling body, it is safe to use *alleged*. “Alleged” means accused but not proved, supposed but doubtful. *Alleged* can be a verb or an adjective. The noun form is *allegation* and *allegedly* is the adverb form. 
Example 

1. It is *alleged* that he stole the money.βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  When you want to leave a discussion for another day, you can say, 
1. Let’s discuss this some other time. 

2. We should defer this for another day. 

3. Let’s flag it for now, and deal with it later. 

4. We aren’t armed enough to tackle it today, a later date will do. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Protagonist

Also referred to as the hero, principal character, main character, etc. 
A *protagonist* is “the main character in a story, novel or play about whom the whole story revolves.”
Odewale, Hamlet, Macbeth, Okonkwo, Silas Marner, etc., were the protagonists in their respective books. 
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of cobras is called a *quiver*.

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Conversational Tips


❇ Confusing wordsπŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’  Export/Import

Export, as a verb, means to “sell (goods) to a foreign country”. To import means “to bring (something) in from a foreign country, especially for sale or trade”. 
The goods which are sold out to other countries are  exports and those brought from other countries are  imports .
Example 

1. Ghana exports cocoa to other countries.βœ…

2. Ghana imports appliances from Korea.βœ…
❇ Misused words/expressions❌

πŸ’  I will find my way round. 

When one is new in an environment, it is expected that he gets acclimatised to the place in the course of time. If it’s an office setting, he is expected to know the various offices and the officers who man them, to know where the washroom is, where to get food and whatnot. The person is expected to find his way  around, not  round
❇ Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  Use of possessive pronouns (PP) 

These pronouns indicate that something belongs to someone or something. _My book_ means the book is mine. “My” and “Mine” are both possessive pronouns (PP), but how do we use both? Let’s look at some examples of PP. 
My, Mine

Our, Ours

Your, Yours

His

Her, Hers

Its 

Their, Theirs
In the above examples, the pronouns are in pairs, except for “his” and “its“. 
*The rule*: The first pronouns in the pairs can be used before a noun; the second pronouns can stand alone as a noun does. _His_ and _Its_ can be used in both ways. 
Example 

1. That is *her* book. (Used before a noun) 

That book is *hers*. (Stands alone)

2. She gave me *my* pen. (Used before a noun) 

The pen she gave me is *mine*. (Stands alone) 

3. That is *his* pen. (Used before a noun)

The pen is *his*. (Stands alone)
It is inappropriate to say, *mine pen, *ours book, *the pen is my, *theirs pencil, etc
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

πŸ’  Linen /ˈlΙͺnΙͺn/

It refers to “a thread or cloth made from flax fiber.”
It is pronounced as /li nin/, but not /liin/. We have linen spray, linen fabrics, etc. 
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Occasion 

In these days that auto-correct is common on our phones and computers, many young ones wouldn’t understand the difficulty some of us had with spelling *occasion* during dictation in class. In those days, it was either you spelt it with two “c” and two “s“, or one “c” with two “s“. Now, a lot has changed; auto-correct is our saviour, but can it save you during sit-down exams? Please take your spellings seriously.πŸ˜„
An *occasion*, for our purpose, is a special event or function. It is spelt with two “c” and only one “s“. 
Example1. Let’s go for the occasion.βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  Abuse of “thing

It is the habit of some people not to ever mention a particular thing they are doing. They have an inexplicable love for “something“, “thing“, “anything“, and _anything with thing_. 

*It is not wrong to use the word thing*. Our concern is only its abuse. Too much use of it doesn’t make one direct or clear when speaking or writing.
Example 1. The thing we are discussing is a sensitive one. πŸ€”
Is it an issue, an animal, or what? Specificity is important.
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Home and dry

Having safely reached one’s target. 
Example 1. If we had committed our resources to the project, we would have been home and dry.βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Annual

This means happening once every year; yearly.
The following are related words:
*Biennial*: Happening every two years.

*Triennial*: Happening every three years. 

*Triannual*: Happening three times within a year. 

*Quadriennial*: Happening every four years. 

*Perennial*: Lasting or remaining active throughout the year, or all the time; timeless, endless, permanent, etc. 
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  When you indicate that you can’t help a situation, you can say, 
1. I would have loved to help but I’m helpless.

2. I’m sorry I cannot lend a helping hand. 

3. It’s an unsavable situation; I’m sorry! 

4. If I could, I would! 

5. There is not much I can do. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Comic relief

It is the introduction of comic characters, speeches, or scenes in a serious or tragic work, especially in dramas. Writers employ this when there is heightened tension, and everyone is on edge. A comic relief is good for those watching the drama or movie, to release tension, and calm down nerves. 
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of ants is an *army* or a *colony*.
Your language is your bargaining power, so make it skilled
πŸ‘ŠπŸ½

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Your language is your bargaining power, so make it skilled πŸ‘ŠπŸ½


❇ *Confusing words*πŸ€”πŸ’¬πŸ’­

πŸ’ Expect/Expert

“Expect” is a verb. It means to wait for, to anticipate, to look forward to something. It is pronounced as /Ι›k spΙ›kt/ or /ik spΙ›kt/. The other verb forms are “expects”, “expected”, and “expecting”.
“Expert” can be a noun or an adjective. As a noun, it refers to “a person with extensive knowledge or ability in a given subject”. As an adjective, it means “knowledgeable or extraordinarily capable”. It is pronounced as /Ι›kspΙ›t/.
Example 

1. We need an expect.❌

We need an expert.βœ…

2. Expert your gift today. ❌

Expect your gift today.βœ…
❇ *Misused words/expressions*❌

πŸ’  Reduce to clear

Just as we helped our friend “call to glory” to become a better person as “called to glory”, let’s help “reduce to clear” okay? What are friends for? 
This expression is used when prices of some items have been reduced in order for people to buy them quickly so that owners can clear them from the shop, perhaps, to bring in new ones. The appropriate expression should be *reduced to clear*, which by expansion is *The prices have been reduced [for them] to be cleared*. It was indicated in the previous lesson that titles or headlines are better when they are kept short so we prefer to use *reduced to clear*.
❇ *Grammar*πŸ“š

πŸ’  *a few* and *few*

A few” means little but sufficient for a set purpose. “A few” has a positive meaning. “Few” means virtually nothing, and insufficient for the set purpose. The meaning is negative. 
Example 

1. The programme was attended by *a few* people.βœ…

[Small number of people but it was okay for the event to happen]
2. Only *few* people attended the event.βœ…[It has a negative meaning. It means the attendance was really bad.]
❇ *Pronunciation*β—€οΈπŸ…Ώβ–ΆοΈ

CommuniquΓ© (Noun) /kΙ™ΛŒmjuːn.ΙͺˈkeΙͺ/  
It is “an official report or statement, such as a government press release or the report of a conference”. 
It is pronounced as /kΙ› muu ni kei/.
Example

1. The chairman presented the communiquΓ© to the president.βœ…
❇ *Spell Check*β˜‘

πŸ’  Mete out [verb]

This verb phrase is popular in the expressions *mete out punishment*, *mete out sanctions*, etc. The problem with its usage is how “mete” is sometimes spelt as “met”. To mete out (something) is to distribute it in portions; to apportion, etc. 
Thus, to mete out punishment is to _give out_, or to ensure that a culprit is punished. 
“Mete” is not pronounced as /mΙ›t/. It is pronounced as /miit/.
Example 

1. The council is set to mete out the appropriate sanctions to the fraudulent MD. βœ…
❇
*Ghanaianisms/Ghanaian English*πŸ˜œπŸ™ŠπŸ™‰

πŸ’  I am waiting [for him] small

We are also waiting for you to mind your language. πŸ˜‚ The sense of the expression above is known but it isn’t framed appropriately. It is better to say, *I am waiting for you awhile*, or I am waiting for you for a short time. 
Thou shall not wait for someone _small_ again.
❇ *Idiom of the day*πŸ†”

πŸ’  Ask for the moon

To claim or desire something that one cannot have. 
Example 

1. Be realistic; don’t ask for the moon.βœ…
❇ *Word of the day*
πŸ‘πŸ½πŸ†•

πŸ’  Dissuade (verb) 

The opposite of *persuade* is *dissuade*. When you persuade someone, you “successfully convince the person to agree to, accept, or do something, usually through reasoning and verbal influence. To *dissuade* is the opposite. To dissuade means “to convince not to try or do”. 
This means that you cannot *persuade* someone not to do something. The appropriate word is *dissuade*.
Example 

1. Mercy persuaded Daniella not to visit the museum.❌

Mercy dissuaded Daniella from visiting the museum.βœ…

2. I can persuade him to do it. βœ…

3. I can dissuade her from doing it. βœ…
❇ *Conversation Tip*βœ…

πŸ’  When you indicate that you have understood a message/issue now, you can say, 
1. The message has sunk home. 

2. I now get the picture. 

3. The penny has dropped. 

4. We are on the same wavelength. 

5. I get the sense of the house. 
❇ *Literary device of the day*🚸 

πŸ’  Dirge

It is “a mournful poem or piece of music composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person”. At funerals, dirges are sung or recited.
❇ *Collective noun*πŸŽ›

A group of sheep is called a *flock* or a *fold*. 
[The plural form of sheep is *sheep*]
……………..End………………..